Malnutrition is the condition that occurs when your body does not get enough nutrients.
There are a number of causes of malnutrition. It may result from:
- Inadequate or unbalanced diet
- Problems with digestion or absorption
- Certain medical conditions
Malnutrition can occur if you do not eat enough food. Starvation is a form of malnutrition.
You may develop malnutrition if you lack of a single vitamin in the diet.
In some cases, malnutrition is very mild and causes no symptoms. However, sometimes it can be so severe that the damage done to the body is permanent, even though you survive.
Malnutrition continues to be a significant problem all over the world, especially among children. Poverty, natural disasters, political problems, and war all contribute to conditions -- even epidemics -- of malnutrition and starvation, and not just in developing countries.
Symptoms vary and depend on what is causing the malnutrition. However, some general symptoms include fatigue, dizziness, and weight loss.
Testing depends on the specific disorder. Most work-ups include nutritional assessments and blood work.
The outlook depends on the cause of the malnutrition. Most nutritional deficiencies can be corrected. However, if malnutrition is caused by a medical condition, that illness has to be treated in order to reverse the nutritional deficiency.
Discuss the risk of malnutrition with your health care provider. Treatment is necessary if you or your child have any changes in the body's ability to function. Contact your health care provider if the following symptoms develop:
- Lack of menstruation
- Lack of growth in children
- Rapid hair loss
If untreated, malnutrition can lead to mental or physical disability, illness, and possibly death.
Treatment usually consists of replacing missing nutrients, treating symptoms as needed, and treating any underlying medical condition.
Baucher H. Failure to thrive. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 37.
Heird WC. Food insecurity, hunger, and undernutrition. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 43.
Klein S. Protein-energy malnutrition. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 234.
Review Date: 5/12/2009
Reviewed By: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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