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Cysticercosis

 

Definition

Cysticercosis is an infection by a parasite called Taenia solium (T. solium), a pork tapeworm, that creates cysts in different areas in the body.

See also: Teniasis

Causes

Cysticercosis is caused by swallowing eggs from T. solium, which are found in contaminated food. Autoinfection is when a person is already infected with adult T. solium, then swallows eggs following improper hand washing after a bowel movement.

Risk factors include eating pork, fruits, and vegetables contaminated with T. solium as a result of unhealthy cooking preparation. The disease can also be spread by contact with infected people or fecal matter.

The disease is rare in the United States, but is common in many developing countries.

Symptoms

Most often, the worms stay in muscles and do not cause symptoms.

Symptoms that do occur depend on where the infection is found:

  • Brain lesions can result in seizures or symptoms similar to those of a brain tumor.
  • Eye lesions can cause decreased vision or blindness.
  • Heart lesions can lead to abnormal heart rhythms or heart failure (rare).
  • Spine lesions can lead to weakness or changes in walking.
Signs and tests

Tests that may be done include:

  • Blood tests to detect antibodies to the parasite
  • Biopsy of the affected area
  • CT scan, MRI scan, or x-rays to detect the lesion
  • Spinal tap (lumbar puncture)
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Expectations (prognosis)

The outlook is generally good, unless the lesion has caused blindness, heart failure, or brain damage. These are rare complications.

Calling your health care provider

If you have any symptoms of cysticercosis, contact your health care provider.

Complications
  • Blindness, decreased vision
  • Heart failure or abnormal rhythm
  • Seizures, increased pressure in the brain
Treatments

Treatment may involve:

  • Medications to kill the parasites (antiparasitic treatments)
  • Powerful anti-inflammatories (steroids) to reduce swelling

If the cyst is in the eye or the brain, steroids should be started a few days before other medicines to avoid problems caused by swelling during antiparasitic treatment. Not all patients benefit from antiparastic treatment.

Sometimes surgery may be needed to remove the infected area.

Prevention

Avoid unclean foods, don't eat uncooked foods while traveling, and always wash fruits and vegetables well.

References

Kraft R. Cysticercosis: an emerging parasitic disease. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Jul 1;76(1):91-6.

King CH. Cestode infections. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 375.


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Review Date: 2/23/2010
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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