Esophagitis is a general term for any inflammation, irritation, or swelling of the esophagus, the tube that leads from the back of the mouth to the stomach.
Esophagitis is frequently caused by the backflow of acid-containing fluid from the stomach to the esophagus, a condition called gastroesophageal reflux. An autoimmune disorder called eosinophilic esophagitis also causes this condition.
The following increase your risk of esophagitis:
- Excessive vomiting
- Medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen, potassium, alendronate, tetracycline, and doxycycline
- Vitamin C supplements
- Surgery or radiation to the chest (for example, treatment for lung cancer)
Persons with weakened immune systems due to HIV and certain medications (such as corticosteroids) may develop infections that lead to esophagitis.
Esophageal infection may be due to fungi, yeast (especially Candida infections), or viruses such as herpes or cytomegalovirus.
The infection or irritation may cause the tissues to become inflamed and occasionally form ulcers. Symptoms may include:
The doctor may perform the following tests:
The disorders that cause esophagitis usually respond to treatment.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of esophagitis.
If untreated, esophagitis may cause severe discomfort, swallowing difficulty to the extent of causing malnutrition or dehydration, and eventual scarring of the esophagus. This scarring may lead to a stricture of the esophagus, and food or medications may not be able to pass through to the stomach.
A condition called Barrett's esophagus can develop after years of gastroesophageal reflux. Rarely, Barrett's esophagus may lead to cancer of the esophagus.
Treatment depends on the specific cause. Reflux disease may require medications to reduce acid. Infections will require antibiotics.
Maish M. Esophagus.In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. St. Louis, Mo: WB Saunders; 2008:chap.41.
Orlando R. Diseases of the Esophagus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap.140.
Review Date: 7/17/2008
Reviewed By: Jenifer K. Lehrer, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Frankford-Torresdale Hospital, Jefferson Health System, Philadelphia, PA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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