Leptospirosis is a rare, severe, and contagious bacterial infection.
Weil disease; Icterohemorrhagic fever; Swineherd's disease; Rice-field fever; Cane-cutter fever; Swamp fever; Mud fever; Hemorrhagic jaundice; Stuttgart disease; Canicola fever
Leptospirosis is caused by exposure to several types of the Leptospira bacteria, which can be found in fresh water that has been contaminated by animal urine. It occurs in warmer climates.
Risk factors include:
- Occupational exposure -- farmers, ranchers, slaughterhouse workers, trappers, veterinarians, loggers, sewer workers, rice field workers, and military personnel
- Recreational activities -- fresh water swimming, canoeing, kayaking, and trail biking in warm areas
- Household exposure -- pet dogs, domesticated livestock, rainwater catchment systems, and infected rodents
Leptospirosis is rare in the continental United States. Hawaii has the highest number of cases in the United States.
Symptoms can take 2 - 26 days (average 10 days) to develop, and may include:
- Dry cough
- Muscle pain
- Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
- Shaking chills
Less common symptoms include:
- Abdominal pain
- Abnormal lung sounds
- Bone pain
- Enlarged lymph glands
- Enlarged spleen or liver
- Joint aches
- Muscle rigidity
- Muscle tenderness
- Skin rash
- Sore throat
The blood is tested for antibodies to the bacteria.
Other tests that may be done:
The outlook is generally good. However, a complicated case can be life-threatening if it is not treated promptly.
Contact your health care provider if you have any symptoms of, or risk factors for, leptospirosis.
- Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction when penicillin is given
- Severe bleeding
Medications to treat leptospirosis include:
Complicated cases will need supportive care.
Avoid areas of stagnant water, especially in tropical climates. If you are exposed to a high risk area, taking doxycycline may decrease your risk of developing disease.
Ko AI. Leptospirosis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 344.
Review Date: 8/3/2008
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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