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Glucose test - urine

 

Definition

The glucose urine test measures the amount of sugar (glucose) in a urine sample. The presence of glucose in the urine is called glycosuria or glucosuria.

See also:

Alternative Names

Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test

How the test is performed

A urine sample is needed. For information on collecting a urine sample, see clean catch urine specimen.

Usually, the health care provider checks for glucose in the urine sample using a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The pad contains chemicals that react with glucose. The color that the dipstick changes tells the provider how much glucose is in your urine.

How to prepare for the test

Your health care provider may tell you to stop taking drugs that may affect the results of the test.

Drugs that may increase urine glucose measurements include:

  • Aminosalicylic acid
  • Cephalosporins
  • Chloral hydrate
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Dextrothyroxine
  • Diazoxide
  • Diuretics (loop and thiazides)
  • Estrogens
  • Ifosfamide
  • Isoniazid
  • Levodopa
  • Lithium
  • Nafcillin
  • Nalidixic acid
  • Nicotinic acid (large doses)

Other drugs also can cause false negative or false positive results, depending on the type of test strip used. Talk to your doctor.

How the test will feel

The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

Why the test is performed

This test is most commonly used to screen for diabetes.

Normal Values

Glucose is not usually found in urine. If it is, further testing is needed.

What abnormal results mean

Greater than normal levels of glucose may be a sign of:

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Glucose release from the kidneys into the urine (renal glycosuria)
  • Pregnancy

Note: Results may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.

What the risks are

There are no risks.

References

Bazari H. Approach to the patient with renal disease. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 115.


Review Date: 8/7/2009
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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